De cara a un crédito hipotecario | Revista Propiedades

De cara a un crédito hipotecario

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Federico Estrada, presidente de la Lonja de Propiedad Raíz -Medellín y Antioquia-, responde diez preguntas que lo sacarán de dudas sobre el crédito hipotecario.

Textos Luisa Fernanda Correa

1.¿Quiénes toman un crédito hipotecario para vivienda?

Los créditos hipotecarios son tomados por personas y familias para alcanzar el cierre financiero en la compra de un inmueble. El beneficiario debe ser una persona a la que una entidad bancaria pueda otorgarle un crédito. Si aparece como deudor moroso en alguna central de información crediticia no podrá acceder al crédito, incluso por algo tan común como no pagar las cuotas del celular o ser codeudor de un tercero que esté reportado.

2.¿Qué situaciones limitan que un colombiano adquiera un crédito hipotecario para vivienda?

Existen varios tipos de limitantes para la toma de un crédito hipotecario. Las dos más importantes son, primero, la insuficiencia de ingresos, es decir, cuando la persona busca que le presten un determinado monto de dinero, pero sus ingresos no alcanzan a cubrir la cuota del crédito hipotecario. Y, segundo, la falta de sustento de los ingresos, que hace referencia a aquellas personas que, aunque tienen capacidad de pago y viven, por ejemplo, en una vivienda arrendada, al momento de sustentar sus ingresos ante la entidad financiera no pueden hacerlo por trabajar en la informalidad.

3 .¿Qué aspectos se deben tener en cuenta antes de solicitar un crédito hipotecario para vivienda?

Es muy importante que cuando las personas vayan a tomar un crédito estimen de manera juiciosa y realista cuánto pueden dedicar de la totalidad de sus ingresos para atender la cuota mensual del banco. Para esto resulta fundamental tener en cuenta, además de los gastos normales de la familia (alimentación, educación, transporte, entre otros), los gastos adicionales que se tendrán en la nueva vivienda, como costos de administración, servicios públicos e impuesto predial, y de esta manera calcular cuánto puede ser la cuota mensual a pagar.

4.¿Cuándo es adecuado solicitar un crédito hipotecario para vivienda?

Normalmente las personas deben tener como mínimo el 30 por ciento de cuota inicial o completarlo mientras la construcción del inmueble, cuando se trata de compra de vivienda nueva.

5.¿Hay subsidios para afrontar esta inversión?

Sí, los actuales beneficios y ayudas del Gobierno para la compra de vivienda nueva se canalizan por medio de los créditos hipotecarios, con programas como Casa Ahorro, para vivienda de interés prioritario (VIP), y Mi Casa Ya, para vivienda de interés social (VIS).

Ambos programas cuentan con subsidio en la cuota inicial, disminución de la cuota mensual, y subsidio a la tasa de interés para vivienda hasta 230 millones con disminución de la cuota mensual.

Sin embargo, esta ayuda solo es para adquirir vivienda por primera vez. Si ya cuenta con casa propia, puede optar por un leasing habitacional, una forma de financiamiento para adquirir vivienda donde se paga un arrendamiento financiero y al final del contrato la persona tiene la opción de comprarla. En vista de que la propiedad del inmueble es de la compañía de leasing, la financiación es un poco más grande, hasta del 80 por ciento, frente a las que se consiguen mediante un crédito hipotecario tradicional.

6. ¿Qué sucede cuando no se pueden cumplir los compromisos adquiridos?

En el caso de que una persona que haya tomado un crédito hipotecario o haya financiado la compra de su vivienda con leasing habitacional y no pueda pagar el crédito, puede verse abocada a un proceso en el que la entidad financiera tome la garantía para resarcir la deuda, es decir, es posible que la entidad financiera se quede con el inmueble como parte de pago de la deuda.

7.¿Existe alguna manera de reducir los intereses?

Explica la Lonja de Propiedad Raíz -Medellín y Antioquia- que la única manera de disminuir la tasa de interés es recibiendo el beneficio del Gobierno o, muchas veces, la compra de cartera entre los bancos, implica disminución de tasas de interés. Sin embargo, solo cuando se paga más capital del crédito, se genera un monto menor de interés por pagar.

8.¿En qué consiste la ayuda del Gobierno para la reducción de intereses?

En la actualidad, el Gobierno destinó recursos para facilitar la financiación de las familias que quieran comprar vivienda nueva de interés prioritario (VIP) y de interés social (VIS), cuyo valor no exceda los 135 salarios mínimos mensuales legales vigentes, es decir ($93.076.425 ) noventa y tres millones setenta y seis mil cuatrocientos veinticinco pesos. El subsidio a la tasa de interés del Gobierno ayuda a pagar hasta el 30 por ciento de la cuota mensual del crédito hipotecario.

9. ¿Quiénes se pueden beneficiar con este programa?

Pueden acceder los colombianos con un ingreso familiar mensual de hasta 8 salarios mínimos, que no sean propietarios de vivienda en el territorio nacional y que no hayan sido beneficiarios con el subsidio a la tasa de interés. Recibirán un subsidio a la tasa de interés del crédito hipotecario de 5 puntos si la vivienda no supera los 70 smlmv ($48.261.850) y de 4 puntos si la vivienda no supera los 135 smlmv ($93.076.425) .

10.¿Qué deben hacer los hogares interesados para acceder al subsidio a la tasa de interés?

Las personas interesadas solo deben solicitar el beneficio de tasa de interés en el establecimiento de crédito que vaya a financiar la compra de su vivienda y realizar el trámite normal para la aprobación de un crédito.Los establecimientos de crédito, por su parte, deben informar a los potenciales deudores de crédito y locatarios de leasing habitacional acerca de las condiciones de acceso, vigencia y terminación anticipada del beneficio que ofrece el Gobierno, según las condiciones vigentes.


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